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Welcome to AMAZRC.com online forum, where all pilots share their experiences, and discuss all model flight related issues. You may have to register in order to post messages.
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 Airplanes - Fuel  > Fuel Plane Talk
The premature takeoff is the big killer here and avoiding it is not difficult if you stay with the routine. The elevator is the killer of many new planes because they jump into the air without sufficient airspeed. The throttle goes to maximum power and a torque induced roll to the left begins. Your reaction is to input maximum right aileron which further effects the stall and with no altitude and not enough airspeed disaster is just a second or two away. You need to manage the throttle and input enough right rudder to keep the plane centered on the runway. Slowly advance the throttle and let the plane start itís takeoff roll. Donít worry about building speed quickly and DO NOT advance the throttle too quickly. The tail will come up as the speed comes up and once it does avoid adding up elevator. The takeoff speed you need will take a second or two to develop and you should be just passing through half throttle at about this point. As the tail comes up the rudder authority will increase and you will have to reduce the right rudder input to keep the plane going straight down the runway. Continue adding power and you should be getting very close to takeoff speed. Add just a touch of up elevator and your plane should break ground and begin itís climb out. DO NOT attempt to turn and keep the aileron input to a minimum until you are sure you are flying and the airspeed is continuing to come up. Use just enough up elevator to establish a gentle climbout. If you have ever watched a real warbird takeoff this is exactly what happens. You donít see them heading straight up two seconds after leaving the runway. You donít see them turn either until they are well established in flight. Keep using the rudder to keep the plane on course.

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Common Trim Problems

The following is a list of the most common trim problems and their effects on the model:

1. Wing incidence set too positive.

a. The model tends to climb through right and left turns.
b. When pulling out of a dive, the model tends to zoom upward instead of returning to level flight.
c. When full throttle is applied the craft tends to zoom upward.

2. Wing incidence set too negative.

a. The craft tends to dive through the complete flight.
b. The model will react opposite to a, b, and c above.

3. Center of gravity too far forward.

a. The nose tends to drop in steep left and right turns.
b. Rolls will be of the barrel type rather than axial.

4. Center of gravity too far rearward.

a. The tail tends to drop during turns.
b. The controls will be too sensitive.
c. Poor wind penetration.
d. The model will tend to balloon when turned into the wind.
e. The model lacks stability during flight.

5. Too much engine down thrust.

a. The model jumps up from straight and level flight when the engine is suddenly cut.
b. The elevator requires excessive up-trim to maintain level flight.

6. Not enough engine down thrust or slight engine up thrust.

a. The model goes into a dive from level flight when the engine is slightly cut.
b. The engine requires down trim for level flight.

7. The craft may require some engine right thrust . A model aircraft shouldn't require any left thrust. If it seems to need left
thrust, look for some other problem.

a. If during a steep climb, the model tends to pull up to the left as it loses speed, add right thrust. If the model tends to
pull to the left near the top of a loop, add right thrust. If it pulls right, reduce the right thrust.

8. One wing panel is too heavy.

a. The same wing panel will tend to pull outward during inside and outside loops.
b. A heavy wing panel will cause the ailerons to trim with one aileron up, and the other down.

9. Too much dihedral. (Pattern aircraft)

a. The model will roll in the direction of the applied rudder.
b. Rolls will be barrel rather than axial.
c. The model will want to roll out of knife edge flight.
d. Inverted maneuvers will be difficult.

10. Too little dihedral. (Pattern aircraft)

a. The model will roll in the opposite direction of the applied rudder.
b. The wing wants to tuck under during knife edge flight.
c. Poor tracking through inside loops.
d. The model tends to lack stability during upright flight.

11. The model won't trim properly.

a. Check all surfaces for warps.
b. Aileron and elevator gaps should be sealed.
c. Check model alignment.
d. Check that both elevator gaps should be sealed.
e. Check for play in control linkage and servos.
f. Check for poor servos that don't center properly. Make sure the radio isn't the problem. Does it work well in other

Trimming a model may, at first seem like a vary tedious task. In order to realize the full potential of any model, it must be trimmed properly. Many models have been labeled as dogs because they were never trimmed properly. Take the time, and trimming will become easier and enjoyable.

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 Last reply by Pete on 15/9/2004  543 Views   1 Replies 
As many of you may already know, flutter can be a serious problem to correct because the cause is very difficult to find. Some
modelers, unsuccessful at solving the problem, just continue to fly the model and let it "buzz". Some modelers simply fly the
model at a slower speed to minimize the effects, accepting the problem as "insolvable".

After talking with a model manufacturer by phone and researching through model aviation magazines, books and model
assembly instruction booklets, I assembled a checklist of possible causes of flutter.

I want to share this information with those of you not already familiar with the causes and consequences of flutter. Hopefully I
can save some of you a little grief and possibly help you prevent an accident.

Control surface flutter is generally indicated by a low frequency buzzing sound. If, when flying a model, you hear this sound land
the model immediately. This is because flutter can QUICKLY destroy the components of your airplane. As we all know,
deterioration of any component can (and probably will) result in a crash. Find the cause of the problem and correct it.


Continuing to fly a model with flutter is asking for an accident to happen. If you must "test fly" the model after attempting to cure
the problem, try to keep away from the pit and spectator area or test fly "off hours" when there are few people at the field. If
the model vibrates apart and crashes, you don't want it to come down in a populated area of the field. First check the servo
mounts for deterioration. This is often said to be an indication of which surface is causing the flutter (imagine what this does to
your servo) . If this is not successful, here are some things known to cause flutter:

l. Pushrod slop or flexing of the linkages.

2. Play in clevis pin at control horn attachment. Replace the horn or use a different hole that allows no play.

3. Play in clevis pin at servo arm attachment. Replace the servo arm or use another hole with no play.

4. Sloppy Z-bend fit in servo or servo arm hole too large. Replace the servo arm or use another hole with no play.

5. Control horns not solidly mounted. Use CA to harden the wood. Be sure screws are secure.

6. Side-play of plastic pushrod caused by tight bends. Reroute the pushrod.

7. Elasticity present in flexible plastic pushrods. Use heavy duty flexible rods, wood or fiberglass pushrods. Don't use any bents
in control wire over 30 degrees.

8. Improperly mounted flexible pushrods (insufficiently supported along the center portion). Flexible pushrods must be secured
at increment along the entire length. Not just at the ends.

9. Poorly glued aileron torque rod (drill proper size hole and use sufficient epoxy where the rod goes into the aileron wood) .

10. Poorly glued elevator joiner wire (drill proper size hole and use sufficient epoxy) .

11. Excessive hinge gap. Remove hinges and reinstall with less gap or iron on a plastic film strip to seal the gap.

12. Aileron flex due to wood which is too soft. Build and install new ailerons.

13. Not enough or insecurely glued hinges.

14. Hinges installed too far from the end of control surfaces. Install hinges according to the plans.

15. Excessive play (backlash) in servo gears. Replace servos or install new gears.

16. Poor (insecure) servo mounting. Remount according to the manufacturer's instructions.

Using the guide above as a check list, I solved the flutter problem in my model . I had drilled out the holes in the aileron servo
arm to make it easier to install the z-bend rods, but I drilled them slightly too large allowing a fraction of a millimeter of play in
the linkage. Simply drilling the proper Size hole in a replacement servo arm solved the problem. I couldn't believe only a
fraction of a millimeter of play could cause such flutter if I didn't see it myself. I was reminded that attention to even the smallest
details is important in building a model that is safe and fun to fly.

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The Basics of Model Aircraft Design

This page describes the general guidelines for designing radio controlled model airplanes. A good rule is that "what looks right is right". Using this philosophy can get you far, but using the method described below can even award you with a model that files reasonably well right off the drawing board. Get that pencil sharpened and pick up that pocket calculator...

Preliminary decisions
I usually start out by looking at what engine I have available, and design a model around this engine. You could also do this the opposite way; design the model and then find what engine it needs. You'll need to decide on the type of model you want and the number of channels to be used.

Engine size
The following table lists the relations between weight and engine displacement. Do remember, however, that the lighter the airplane, the better it will fly, no matter what engine used. This means the minimum weight given in the table should be used only as a guideline. From this table you can find the estimated weight of your finished design.

Airplane weight Engine size

20 - 30 oz. .049
25 - 38 oz. .10
30 - 45 oz. .15
40 - 50 oz. .20
45 - 60 oz. .25
5 - 6 lb. .40
6 - 9 lb. .60

Wing loading
The performance that may be expected from a model, can very often be determined from the wing loading of the model. The wing loading is the amount of weight the wing of the model have to lift or support in flight. The following table describes reasonable wingloadings for some types of models.

Type of Aircraft
Gentle Trainer/Gliders
0 - 12 oz./sq.ft.
Easy-to-fly trainer/sport
13-19 oz./sq.ft.
Advanced sport/scale
20-25 oz./sq.ft.
High-performance Pattern/Racing
26-34 oz./sq.ft.
Very large/Exhibition models
34+ oz./sq.ft.

WARNING: Models with high wingloadings may cause serious injury/damage when crashing as they are heavy and fly fast!

Calculating Wing area
By combining the wing loading for the selected type of model with the estimated weight of the model, you find the needed wingarea for a model with your choice of engine and desired performance.

"I have a .20 on the shelf and want a sport model. The tables state that a sport model ought to have a wingloading of 20 oz./sq.ft. and a weight of around 40 oz. The needed wing area will be:
40 oz. / 20 oz./sq.ft = 2 sq.ft.

Airframe calculations
Using the calculated wing area, other main design parameters may be found according to the following rules-of-thumb:

1.Ratio of wingspan to chord should be between 5 and 6
2.Wing thickness should be between 12% to 15% of chord
3.Total length of fuselage should be about 70% of span
4.Nose-moment arm (wing LE to back of propeller) should be about 15%
of span
5.Tail-moment arm (wing TE to stabilizer LE) should be about 25% of
6.Total stabilizator/elevator area should be about 20% of total wingarea
7.Elevator area should be about 20% of total stabilizator/elevator area
8.Fin/rudder area should be about 8% of total wingarea
9.Rudder area should be about 25% of total fin/rudder area
10.Strip ailerons should take up about 8% of chord
11.CG of finished airplane should be at about 25% aft of LE at the average
mean chord

Design example
Assume we have a .40 available and want an easy-to-fly sport model. A wingloading of 16 oz./sq.ft. will fit the desired performance, and the engine will work well with an airframe weighing 5 lb. This gives a wingarea of 5 sq.ft.
A 5 ft. wingspan (60 in.) gives a 1 foot chord which satisfies rule 1; stating a ratio of 5:1 for span to chord. If the wing is 1.5 inches thick at its thickest point, that will satisfy rule 2.

Rule 3 states that the total length of the fuselage should be about 42 inches. Following, the nose-moment arm will be 9 inches, and the tail-moment arm 15 inches. Assuming the engine an propeller will take up about 3 inches for a .40, the firewall will be located 6 inches in front of the wing LE. The wing will take up the next 12 inches and the tail-moment arm and tailgroup the remaining inches.

Rule 6 states that the stabilizer/elevator should take up about 20% of total wing area; this gives a stabilizer/elevator area of about 145 sq.in. The fuselage length gives 6 inches for the tail chord, which gives a span of 24 inches for the desired area.
Following rule 7, the stabilizer has a chord of 4.5 inches and the elevator 1.5 inches. Looks can be improved from the square design describes here by increasing the root chord and tapering the tip - still retaining the same areas.

The total fin/rudder area should according to rule 8 be about 60 sq.in., 15sq.in. of which will be the rudder. Using the same mean chord as the stabilizer, this gives a tail standing 10 inches high , and a rudder with a 1.5 inch chord. NOTE: The part of the fuselage below the tail is also considered part of this area! Again an increase in root chord and reduction in tip chord will drastically improve looks.

Using a constant chord wing, the airplane should balance at about 3 inches aft of the LE. Results
Using this method will give a gentle-flying sport model, that satisfied our project definitions. The rules stated above give a rather square model. Looks may be increased drastically by rounding wingtips, streamlining the tailfeathers, tapering the wing, building a rounded fuselage, and so on. This is where only your imagination defines the boundaries!
Whatever you do; stick with the general relations gives above, and you'll be award with a nice flying model - and one that looks right as well...

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This hobby is a dangerous one....
Don't ever take any kind of risks....
Safety first!

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 Last reply by Pete on 3/10/2004  489 Views   1 Replies 
1. A successful Radio equipment ground check should be made before the first flight of the day and
after any rough landings.
2. A pre-flight check before each flight should be performed by the pilot.
3. No aircraft shall be flown in competition or in the presence of spectators except by a qualified flier
or under the supervision of an instructor.
4. No aircraft shall be flown in competition or in the presence of spectators unless it has been proven
airworthy by having been flight tested by a qualified Club pilot.
5. All fliers will perform their initial turn after take-off away from the pit, spectator, and parking areas
and will not thereafter perform maneuvers, flights of any sort, or landing approaches over the pit, spectator,
or parking areas.
6. All persons will abide by the safety rules of the flying site and will not willfully and deliberately fly in
a careless, reckless, and dangerous or unsportsmanlike manner.
1. All persons will observe the Transmitter Impound and Frequency Control Rules.
2. No spectators, children, animals, or guests (other than pilots) shall be permitted on the Flying Field
proper or in Transmitter Impound Area or outside the Bounds of the Spectator area.
3. Pits are restricted to Pilots, Pit Crews, and/or Helpers.
4. All engines shall be started in a direction to avoid prop wash in the spectator area or against another
personís pit area or aircraft.
5. Runways shall be designated by the prevailing winds and ALL Takeoffs and Landings will be per-
formed procedurally from the designated runway except during an emergency condition.
6. All Pilots shall observe the Pilot standing areas as designated and shall not fly from the pit, taxiways,
or any other area not designated as a pilot standing area.
7. All Pilots flying shall be alert to aircraft taking off and landing. Emergency situations and dead-stick
craft shall have priority on the runway.
8. Pilots only and Novice Pilots standing with an Instructor shall be permitted in the Pilot standing
1. Before flying, be sure that the numbered yellow pin is available for your frequency. If the yellow pin
is missing, DO NOT FLY and DO NOT TURN ON YOUR RADIO!. Locate the person with the pin and
wait for it to be returned.
2. If your frequency is available, remove the yellow frequency pin from the board and keep it on your
person. Replace the yellow pin with your AMA card or other Club Approved ID. Refer to the ďNew Member
InfoĒ document for more detailed use of the Frequency Pin Board.
3. If using the float tank, place a clear ďFloat TankĒ tag at the vacant frequency
pin location.
4. When flight is completed, return the yellow frequency pin to itís proper location on the board and
return the Float Tank tag as appropriate.

Page 7
1. No abusive language.
2. No high speed taxiing in the pit area.
3. Frequency flags will be displayed on all transmitter antennas.
4. Any Club member using radio equipment or running model engines on the Club Field shall display
his Badge in plain sight for ease of noting non-member use of the facilities.
5. No flying will be allowed on the Club Field when a work crew is working on runway improvements,
repair, or maintenance. All members present on field shall assist with job to be done on field when needed.
6. A muffler is required on all engines of .10 cubic inch displacement or larger.
7. Only 1991 approved narrow band transmitters and dual conversion receivers will be allowed to
be used at the field.

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 Last reply by hisham on 15/10/2004  626 Views   2 Replies 
Index of Basic Maneuvers


Flying is the second greatest thrill known to man. Landing is the first!

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 Last reply by Pete on 18/10/2004  493 Views   1 Replies 
Giant Scale Accident


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thinking of a new vacation/honeymoon....


Check this hotel in Corfu island Greece!

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 Last reply by hisham on 4/11/2004  496 Views   2 Replies 
Love to share with you guys these 2 albums,
Warbirds at muncie 2004 :

Scale masters 2004 :

Enjoy... Especially for the warbird lovers!!

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 Last reply by hisham on 20/11/2004  657 Views   2 Replies 
For all you LARGE scale fans out there
Check out this one :


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Hobby Workshop Safety
By James Goss
{Interesting article}

If you like to build models like I do then you probably have an area around your house designated as your workshop. This could be an unused room in your house such as a bedroom, dining room, garage, basement or an exterior building outside your home. Wherever you have your building area located I am sure you spend a lot of time there like I do. When it comes to shop safety we have to really be careful in our line of work because of the type work we are doing. Trying to build tiny little parts like we are involved with can actually be just as dangerous as fabricating large industrial devices. This may sound odd to you but I have personally seen several bad accidents take place. These accidents were a result of someone trying to fabricate a tiny little part from wood while operating large woodworking machinery. Fingers severed because tiny parts require that you hold them close to the saw while cutting to shape. I have seen table saws propel small sharp pieces of wood that got pinched between the saw blade and fence, across the room like a bullet. Breaking windows and hitting bystanders, these projectiles could be deadly. There are ways to prevent these accidents from happening and I feel it is good to talk about them from time to time so we will stay on our guard. If you have ever had an accident around your shop or have seen one take place or have simply heard about one, send in the details to me and we will talk about it in the newsletter.

What I would like to talk about today deals with electrical safety around the shop. I can guarantee you that the number one electrical safety problem around most shops will be related to electrical grounding first and then improper equipment being used in place of what is called for as a second most serious hazard. The theory of grounding is not hard to understand and is probably the most misunderstood part of any electrical installation. If you have two objects that have the same electrical potential on them it is safe to say that there will be no current flow between them. This is what equipment grounding does; it prevents the chassis of a device, such as a metal power tool, from becoming electrically hot if a fault occurs in that tool. If the metal chassis of a tool you are using becomes hot, because of a fault in the electric motor, and you are standing on a floor that is an electrical conductor, such as damp concrete, your body will be exposed to 120 volts ac. The actual amount of voltage will depend on how good of a ground you make contact with. 120 volts ac is a lethal voltage! More people are killed each year with 120 volts ac than any other voltage.

If you are holding the faulty hand tool and touch another metal case tool that is earth grounded you will receive the full 120 volts and could easily be electrocuted. One side of the ac line is earth grounded and is called the neutral conductor. It is also referred to as the grounded conductor. This is where the confusion comes in; the grounded conductor is not the grounding conductor. The grounding conductor (ing), also called the equipment ground, is the bare or green conductor in a cable or conduit. It connects to the metal chassis of tools and appliances so that if a fault does occur in that piece of equipment and a hot wire touches the chassis, a short circuit will occur and a breaker will trip. The idea here is that it is better to shut off the branch circuit than to have a hot chassis just waiting for someone to touch it and get electrocuted. So let me say again that if a fault occurs in an appliance or hand tool and the hot wire touches the chassis or frame, the branch breaker will trip only if the frame of the device is earth grounded. If the frame is not grounded it is said to be floating and can carry the full potential of the hot wire. There is nothing more dangerous than to have a hot chassis on an appliance of hand tool in an environment where there is a lot of other grounded devices nearby. Over the years I have checked hundreds of electrical systems that had improper grounds through out the building. A large portion of these cases were brought to my attention because someone was receiving and electrical shock and wanted me to find out why.

The receptacles in your home or shop are required to be of the equipment grounding type. That is to say that the receptacles are a three wire two pole device. If your receptacles are in a metal box, and older systems will be, then the box must also be grounded as well as the receptacle. It is not by code standards to ground the box only and depend on the screws that hold the receptacle in the box to bring a ground from the box to the receptacle. The reason for this requirement is that if the screws become loose the receptacle would not have a solid ground. Even though this is a code violation you will find this still being done. If the receptacle has a self grounding strap that holds one of the two 6-32 screws, then it is excepted, of if you have metal to metal contact between the receptacle and metal box then it is also excepted, but this is rarely the case. The best way is to have the grounding wire bonded to the box and also bonded to the receptacle ground terminal.

To check your receptacle for proper grounding is simple. Have someone that is experienced with measuring ac voltage to make these simple tests. Set the voltmeter for ac voltage and select a range that will be equal to or higher than the 120 volts. The face of your receptacle has two vertical slots and one half circle. One of the slots will be longer than the other slot and this is the neutral slot. The shorter slot is the hot side of the receptacle. The half round circle is the ground prong. Place the meter probe into the hot slot and the other probe into the ground prong. If the receptacle is grounded properly the meter will read 120 volts. Next place the meter probes between the neutral slot and the ground prong; the meter should read zero volts and not 120 volts. If you read zero on the first test and 120 volts on the second test, the receptacle is wired backwards. That is to say that the hot and neutral conductors are crossed. This can be a very dangerous situation and needs to be corrected as soon as possible.

120 volts is a nominal voltage rating and your home or shop may vary from this value. It should be in the range of 110 to 125 volts, this is not that critical. You can buy a small receptacle tester for about $5 at Lowes that you can plug into the receptacle and it checks all three voltages at the same time by having three combinations of lights to be on or off as an indicator. This little device is well worth the money and it allows you to test your receptacles fast and easy. You should at least check your receptacles two times a year to spot a hazard before it happens.

Next newsletter in shop safety I would like to discuss GFCI protection and also some good facts about using extension cords in your shop. Remember, when installing an electrical system to first make it safe and then make it work. It is easy to wire up some lights and receptacles and get the lights to come on when you flip the switch and have the receptacles furnish 120 volts, but it requires a little more effort to make it safe when faults in the system occur.

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Hisham Bu Jawdeh.

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 Last reply by Guyo on 21/12/2004  572 Views   1 Replies 
The New Futaba 14MZ review


You should dig deep in your wallets guys!

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 Last reply by Guyo on 18/1/2005  522 Views   2 Replies 
Servo Torque Calculator


Hope this is helpful for you guys!

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   515 Views   0 Replies 
Check out the Abu Dhabi red Bull air race!


Awesome... this is gonna happen on the
10th of April.!!!
Guess I am addicted to this ???

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   523 Views   0 Replies 
La Ferte 2004


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 Last reply by Guyo on 24/2/2005  486 Views   1 Replies 
Wishing you all
a Happy Easter may the coming spring
be full of new models as well as
successfull landings!

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Would like to share with you guys the VICTOR.

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   942 Views   0 Replies 

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